By the end of the s, some studies on internal migation, concerning especially Soviet-time immigration into the Estonian SSR, were conducted. The social impact of the massive influx of workers which was planned as a part of forced industralization was examined by a group of researchers Vihalem Lauristin et.
There has also been an ongoing tradition in historical demographic research focusing on the patterns of rural and urban settlement, urbanisation in the 19th century, Baltic Germans in Estonia as well as the ethnic Estonian settlement abroad before the Soviet era. However, these issues are not in the focus of this research. Restoring the independent Estonian state in , within nearly its traditional borders and the integration of Estonia into international structures, created preconditions for the control and monitoring of its borders as well as for the study and intensified interest for information related to immigration.
In the middle of s, Estonia re-established more or less control over its borders. Integration of Estonia into the European Union in the turn of millennium gave a new birth to immigration studies and to series of applied studies. As social sciences are meagrely financed in Estonia one cannot expect much detailed literature. Thus, this paper focuses on the sources from a larger field including various aspects of economic migration. In , the Estonian Migration Foundation www. According to its Statute, its main purpose is to support the migration and integration processes and to raise funds in order to undertake these tasks.
The goal of the Migration Foundation is to facilitate the preservation of the Estonian nation and culture. Migration Foundation consults and, if necessary, supports migrants financially. Foundation also collects and analyses the information about migration and migrants, carries out research on migration, integration and asylum, and organizes events where migration topics are discussed.
The Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for the issues of labour migration. Besides their administrative responsibilities these institutions also carry out some applied analyses. The labour and education economics research group at the University of Tartu has its focus on the workforce mobility.
The governmental interest has been centered on the statistical analysis of population trends, mainly conducted in TLU Institute of Demography. Some research is conducted also in the other subunits of the three main Estonian universities in addition to the former also the Tallinn University of Technology. But the research on migration has not been a sole focus of any institution. Research on migration carried out by our Baltic neighbours also provides valuable information for comparative research There has been no targeted research on transnational migration and there are only few reports on the EstonianFinnish transnational space in Estonia.
With regard to the latter, there are some newspaper and journal articles of common interest on Estonians permanently working and living in Finland and vice versa. The Soviet Empire was almost hermetically closed entity to the word community Macro-level approach, which refers to the integration of Estonia into world community, could take shape only in the context of regaining of national independence and the integration of Estonia into the EU, NATO etc. The integration of Estonia into the EU stimulated research on regional community building Nordic, European and citizenship issues.
Citizenship and civil society issues, which are related to some aspects of micro-level studies sociologically important have been elaborated. But still the extensive and well-articulated research, which follows focused approach or level-oriented research strategy on macro-, meso-, micro-levels has not yet been developed. A very low number of new immigrants - altogether ca individuals during the last two decades- has not yet created difficulties regarding their adaptation nor stimulated research.
Regular task - to ease the settlement and integration of migrants into the economic, social and political structure of the country, is not yet a burning issue. In the s, the main focus of politically oriented immigration studies was largely retrospective. It aimed at defining Estonia as a post-colonial country, from a perspective of national consolidation, in terms of building the civil society.
The status and the political role of the Soviet-time immigrants was indicated addressing them with the label - a civil 24 garrison. The main task of the migration studies was indicating 1 the impact of the migration history geographical, spacial background of migration in the USSR on the political culture; 2 the impact of the social structure of migrants retired military, KGB etc on their loyalty; and 3 the impact of the ethnic belonging on community building. The Macro dimension of migration research is related first all to studies which tried to map Estonian Diaspora in the world.
But this dimension is positive. There is data indicating the social structure of remigrated Estonians27, but no specific study in terms of their impact on political life has been conducted. For example, the Estonian president is Swedish-born Estonian. The micro-level studies of historical immigrants colonists first of all target their political adaptation integration.
Verkauft Fressnapf Hamster
The state policies towards immigrants citizens, non-citizens as well as the citizens of the third countries have since been formulated in a general action plan program called Integration in Estonian Society It was the first of its kind to directly address the issue of integrating immigrant minorities into Estonian society.
Today the new program has been drafted by a governmental commission. Accordingly, the political participation of ethnic and immigrant minorities has been examined in theoretical discussion on the desirability of different citizenship policies as well as in empirical studies that compare the political participation of different population groups on a more general level.
In the same time, Estonian naturalization model which targets adaptations and political participation of Soviet time civil garrison has also effect on the integration of new immigrants, who have arrived after restoring the Estonian independence. These processes have been reflected in reports of political scientists working at Tallinn and Tartu Universities. The main interest has been in labour migration discussed under economic dimension. However, there are also some other aspects addressed, such as trafficking in women. Most of this literature is in the form of policy documents or reports.
There is also a general assessment on Schengen To an extent, the multiple and European citizenship research by Kalev and Ruutsoo , , is also somewhat related to the political dimension of transnationalism identifying the challenges to the traditional Estonian policies and concerning the attitudes to accommodating to European standards. Pettai, Kulu ; Kulu Berg, Ehin PhD thesis. Tallinn: EKDK. This practice depends of course on the legislation of the other country in question. Finland followed circumstances in Sweden and other Nordic countries.
Besides, the Finnish participation in the European Union has influenced much on the citizenship policies practiced in the country. Finally, one influential factor has been the Finnish emigrants who have lost their status of citizenship in Finland and wanted to get it back. A further study focused on the attitudes of Finnish politicians, state officials and NGO officials towards multiple citizenship.
Finally, conceptions and experiences on dual www. Nations and Nationalism, 8, 4: pp. In: Magda Opalski ed. Minorities, migration and nation-building in post-communist Europe. Nepean, Ontario: Forum Eastern Europe: pp. Astu sisse! Tallinn, EKDK,. W; Williams S. Tallinn, EKDK, 35 p. Tallinn, EKDK, ISBN ; Sakkeus. Tallinn, EKDK, 30p. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, p. Rotterdam:Sense Publishers, Multiple Citizenship in Europe — Views of Officials. Peter Lang. European University Studies. Series XXII. Sociology Vol. Oxford-Wien, Pasi Saukkonen explores politics in multicultural society from a European perspective.
He also shortly introduces Finnish research, for example, on multiculturalism, immigration and minorities. During these years attempts were made to build proactive, long-term immigration policies taking into account comprehensively all the elements of international migration. Yet the analysis of the case studies showed that immigration policies remained mainly reactive: reacting to unexpected changes by enhancing control.
Salmenhaara notes that, in Finland, administrative practices have often been strict whereas the legislative context has been looser. It includes special provisions regarding asylum seekers, refugees and victims of trafficking in human beings. The regulations concerning the freedom of movement which apply to EU citizens also apply to citizens of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. Furthermore, the citizens of the Nordic countries have certain privileges, for example, to enter the country without a passport. According to this law, so-called Ingrian Finns, who lived in the former Soviet Union, have the right to a continuous residence permit if they can prove their Finnish ancestry and are fluent in either Finnish or Swedish.
Currently, effects have been made to stimulate the political activity of immigrants and emigrants within voluntary civic associations and other third sector activities. The new Immigration Policy Programme, effective since October , is to favour mobilization of newcomers for active political participation. The objective is active and full membership of society for those who move to Finland from abroad. It is considered a precondition for the development of multicultural society that policy-makers, public authorities and civil society have a strong dedication to the prevention of discrimination and the promotion of equal opportunity and ethnic equality.
These issues have been discussed by numerous researchers, e.
Translation of turkey in German
In Finland, there are several research centres focusing on the political domain of state membership. At the Institute of Migration, several research projects have focused on the political membership and participation of immigrants in Finland. Publications are often policy-oriented. DeMi is a multi-disciplinary network organization focusing on the areas of migration, transnationalism and development.
The research consortium, managed by the Department of Education, University of Tampere, consists of national and international, institutions, research projects and individual scholars focusing on the subject areas. The activities conducted by DeMi aim at developing comprehensive theoretical analyses and practical insights on the multi-level transformation processes underway due to the new patterns of international collaboration and types of migration not present in the past.
In: P. Kalekin-Fishman Eds. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, Tampere: Vastapaino. Helsinki: SKS. Tapaus Suomi Licentiate thesis, University of Helsinki. Macro level approach refers to the integration of Estonia into global cultural world and border-crossing migration, meso-level to cultural ties and networks, i. Regarding current research on the socio-cultural dimension, it not possible to indicate micro, meso and macro levels concerning the transnational space. Considering the state of the art, available research and related literature is displayed here so that report contains also literature that is substantially related to the matter and offers significant framework and background information.
The research literature approaching the transnational spaces from the socio-cultural point of view is more than modest. The accession to the EU gave a push for mapping of pre-accession situation. Research also gives some insight into the level of personal contacts, visiting experiences etc. The main body of literature consists of studies that focus on media contacts — consuming international media for example Vihalemm , cultural exchange, intercultural interaction, translation practices etc.
Almost missing is the research concerning the transnational cultural spaces between Finland and Estonia. There are many short reports on the migration of a relatively large share of the Estonian musicians, scholars and students to Finland, but no focused research have been carried out on this topic. Some valuable information is collected concerning the development of personal contacts and mass tourism between Estonia and Finland in the years 47, but also regarding the impact of cultural and personal contacts on stereotypes of Estonian and Finns There may be some aspects addressed in the context of environmental identity49 or integration an ongoing EU 6th framework project on the integration of the second generation of immigrants by the Estonian team of Vetik.
There are also some study reports on identity with a relatively general focus of interest Most of the socio-cultural literature cf. Vetik has focused on internal ethnic integration broadly in line with the political dimension. Due to its remoteness to our focus we will not discuss it in more detail. Relatively much interest is devoted to the remigration of ethnic Estonians to Estonia the various writings of Kulu as the main author in the 51 field, also Kask and to the socio-economic and socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants to Estonia.
The 52 socio-economic aspects are discussed in terms of economic dimension. Lauristin et al ; Talavs Jundziz Shimonjan Heidmets Boman Kulu and Lagerspetz Thesis, University of Tartu, Estonia. Keskkondlik identiteet Eestis teaduseriala nr. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre. The migration research in Estonia has focused, in particular, on the demographic analysis of migration and population trends.
This is mainly general statistical analysis on birth and death rates, migration flows etc. Katus, Ainsaar. The impact of international and transnational migration on the regional development became the object of discussion in the last decade in the two main contexts. The first context originated from the collapse of the Soviet period agricultural production and industrial system, which in turn facilitated rapid urbanization and interregional migration inside Estonia cf.
The second context is the product of the larger regional processes, first of all the complex relations of co-operation and interest clash between the cities in the Baltic Sea region; the focus remains particularly on Helsinki-Tallinn co-operation. In s, the main focus of studies was retrospective - population studies - mapping of the Estonian population in terms of core population and immigrants. The main research problem was indicating 1 the impact of the migration history geographical, spacial background of migration in USSR on the mobility ; 2 the impact of the social structure, etc.
The impact of all these dimensions on the future of the country was studied in a perspective of the motivation of huge bulk of migrants for returning to their historical homeland. These studies had their focus on remigration policy which was perceived as the one of the essential elements of creating of basic framework for the stabile political development future. Facilitation of return of civil garrison was the main target of these studies.
Some analyses addressed the sociological aspects of migrants identity. There has also been some emphasis to the occupational or ethnic segregation A part of this research concentrates in the Soviet period IN Viron Suomen Instituuti. Vuosikirja , Helsinki-Tallinn; Lauristin, M. Tartu: Tartu University Press. Aune Valk koost. Review article, David J. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, vol. Reactive identity versus the EU integration. University of Osaka, ; ; Vetik, Raivo Marju Lauristin; Mati Heidmets Toim.
The Challenge of the Russian Minority 55 - XXX , no. Meedia tulemustest. Kalmus, V. Valge Kulu Regional Policy and Migration, , pp. Tartu University Press, Tartu; Ainsaar Mare , Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia Turku: Turun Yliopisto, , Diss. There are several studies, however, looking at the socio-cultural domain from transnational point of view: e. Tallinn: EKDK,. Migratsionnoje razvitie Estonii skvoz prizmu strategii migratsionnoi politiki. Tallinn: EKDK, 21 s. Tallinn: EKDK, 21 pp.
Tallinn: EKDK, 35 lk. Tallinn, EKDK, 20 p. Post-War Migration Trends in Estonia. Tallinn, EKDK, 30 p. Juhendajad: Hill Kulu, Jussi S. In: Ainsaar, M. London: Macmillan. European Journal of Cultural Studies vol. Some studies have also been conducted on transnational families. Both of these writers refer to one of the specific characteristics of the transnational space between Finland and Estonia, that is, the geographical closeness of these countries; this enables many practices, such as frequent visits, which are not possible in many other contexts where the distance between sending and receiving countries is substantially longer.
Her data shows that the Estonian women consider Finland as a peaceful and safe educational environment for small children. Therefore, for Estonian women in Finland emigration was seen as a good strategy to guarantee a higher quality of education for their children. In case of Finnish women in Estonia, the interviewees with small children had chosen to migrate mainly for career reasons for their own or their husbands and they were concerned about the children's safety in Estonia. The immigrant population from Estonia to Finland is ethnically diverse, including ethnic Estonians, ethnic Russians as well as so called Ingrian Finns, i.
This has many repercussions for the emerging practices among the migrant population. The specific nature of the Ingrian Finnish immigration from the whole area of ex-Soviet Union has been analysed within Finnish academia66, but the transnational aspect has not been thoroughly discussed. The ethnic dimension in the analysis of the transnational space between Finland and Estonia would make the analysis more sensitive to the inner differentiation of the migrant population in question.
Laura Assmuth has produced nuanced understanding of cross-border practices as well as of the organization of every-day life in the border area between Estonia, Russia and Lithuania67, based on ethnographic research. The colonial Forms of Power? Complying with Colonialism. Gender, 'Race' and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region. Aldershot: Ashgate. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland vol. In Martikainen, Tuomas ed. Ylirajainen kulttuuri: Etnisyys Suomessa luvulla.
National report: Finland, Soccare Project Report 4. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino. Focaal : European journal of anthropology vol 41, ; Assmuth, Laura Ethnicity and citizenship in the borderlands between Estonia, Latvia, and Russia. Beyond post-Soviet transition : micro perspectives on challenge and survival in Russia and Estonia. Helsinki: Kikimora publications. While the Estonian-Russian border used to be an inner border between federal states within Soviet Union, it has now become a border between an EU and non-EU country, while the Finnish-Estonian border has changed from a rather closed border to one between two EU-countries.
Such historical and geopolitical considerations enable us to see the dynamic nature of the formation of transnational spaces and practices. Some researchers have argued that there is tension between integration into the new country of settlement and transnational lifestyles maintained by at least some migrants. There are different ways of understanding integration, and subsequently national policies may relate differently to transnational practices.
In official Finnish state policies, there is a tendency from assimilationist approaches to more pluralistic ones. In the new Immigration Policy Programme, effective since October , the general aim can be characterized as pluralistic. The objective is that while migrants dynamically participate in the Finnish society they also feel connected to their own ethnic groups — without feeling any sense of contradiction. The empirical question is, of course, to what extent this objective is achieved among different migrant populations.
Especially discriminative discourses and practices complicate the realization of such policy objectives. The Estonians had, in general, experienced less discrimination than Russians and Ingrian Finns. One current issue of concern, both within politics and academic debates, is how to bring foreign newcomers into the redistribution of welfare. This question has been discussed, e. They both argue that for Finnish welfare state, equality of people from different national and cultural backgrounds is a challenging matter.
In practice, a Nordic welfare state with its universalistic principles may be excluding newcomers from active social participation. Persons moving to Finland on a permanent basis can apply for coverage under the Finnish social security system. In principal, the employees are covered by the social security system of the country in which they are employed. The studies showed that the immigrants used the health care services less than the population of Finnish origin except the immigrant women aged years who had more hospitalisations due to pregnancy and childbirth.
Furthermore, the immigrants were also less likely to use public day-care in particular, regarding children less than three years old. However, immigrants received higher income transfers due to nursing at home. They argue that there is a Liebkind, Karmela et. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. There are also other studies concentrating on discrimination and racism experiences by different migrant populations in Finland, e.
Helsinki: Gaudeamus; Rastas, Anna Rasismi lasten ja nuorten arjessa: Transnationaalit juuret ja monikulttuuristuva Suomi. Tampere: Tampere University Press. In macro level, this refers to the context of global market structures and the governance of border-crossing labour migration, in meso-level, economic ties and networks, formation of economic communities and opportunity hoarding and, in micro level, to the mobility and decision-making of individuals.
The focus is clearly on macro level. There are two key topics: the implications of the free movement of labour and the flexibility of labour market cf. Also, some research is carried out into the most problematic fields of qualified labour emigration cf. Emigration of current residents and immigration of newcomers is often regarded as a threat or problem to be handled Alternative topics of labour migration are mostly addressed in student theses in universities cf.
Also there is some clerical, statistical and technical literature on the methodology of data collection on international migration There are also some articles and policy reports that focus on the twin-city plans of the capitals of Finland and Estonia, Helsinki and Tallinn i. Hellinn or Talsinki cf. Tallinn strategy paper, Kurik et al on the perceptions of entrepreneurs. There have not been much scholarly analyses published on the Estonian-Finnish transnational space in terms of the social security. The most relevant piece of literature stems from web pages of various public and private agencies related to the movement of working force.
A very informative web page on the working conditions in Finland is established by the Finnish trade unions. Research in meso- and micro-level of Estonian-Finnish transnational economic space is practically nonexistent. The other reports are sporadic and often not strictly academically oriented. There is no research as for now that would focus precisely on the transnational economic spaces between Finland and Estonia. Herm The research literature approaching the transnational spaces from the economic point of view in Finland is rather modest.
In most cases, the approaches acquire the view point of receiving or sending country, rather than transnational i. Even more modest is the amount of research done concerning the transnational economic spaces between the Finland and Estonia and no studies exists, that would scrutinize this transnational space simultaneously at micro- meso- and macro-levels. Consequently, research literature is introduced here more extensively, since there is, however, a wide body of literature that is closely related to the matter and offers significant framework and background information for the more narrowly defined focus of TRANS-NET research project.
The modest amount of economically oriented studies concentrating to interaction between Finland and Estonia may be partially explained by the facts that Estonia acquired its independence just and Finnish economy basically opened up as recently as at the beginning of the s.
In addition, it should be noticed that also the amount of migration research in general and the number of related publications increased drastically during the s in Finland. Paabut, A. Kraut, L. Articles, ed. How flexible are the labour markets in CEE countries. Juhendaja Leif Kalev. Kurik toim. Terk, M. Kovin, A. Eesti Tuleviku-uuringute Instituut, Tallinna Linnavalitsus. Juhendaja: Jaanus Kiili. The most useful body of literature consists of work which focuses on foreign entrepreneurs in Finland 79 and intercultural interaction and diversity management in Finnish workplaces Four scientific compilations may be named as significant openings in terms of introducing the new viewpoint to internationalisation of labour markets.
In these studies, the foreign labour force is seen rather as an economic resource than social burden. Marja-Liisa Trux ed. A slightly modified English version of the above-mentioned book is edited by Annika Forsander ed. Both books cover micro-, meso- and macro-level approaches. In this book, it was noted that an important turn was taken place in Finland when immigration was seen rather as an economic opportunity than as a social and political threat in the Finnish context.
While previous publications mainly focused on labour markets at a micro level, this book contributes to the current discussion on transnationalism in the Finnish context albeit only two articles has focus on labour markets. Today, in Finland, there are several policy reports and research documents provided by the Finnish government and Ministries on labour migration and the need for foreign labour.
These papers indicate the significance of the issue in the Finnish context and provide a lot of useful data about related regulations, policies and statistics. In the new Immigration Policy Programme, effective since October , the goals of labour market policy are for the first time in agreement with the views which support migration for humanitarian reasons. In the background, there is a concern about the distortion of the age structure and the diminishing of the workforce.
As the Finnish population is aging, it has been recommended to recruit foreigners to fulfill the needs of the labour market. In integration policy, the objective is active and full membership of society for those who move to Finland from abroad. It is considered a precondition for the development of a multicultural society that policymakers, public authorities and civil society have a strong dedication to the prevention of discrimination and the promotion of equal opportunity and ethnic equality.
For example, Joronen, Tuula Immigrant entrepreneurship in Finland in the s. In Annika Forsander ed. The Case of Finland. Sitra pdf ; Joronen, Tuula Helsingin seutu maahanmuuttajien yritystoiminnan kasvualustana. Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus. Teoksessa Matti Hannikainen toim. Gummerrus Kirjapaino Oy. In Povrzanovic Frykman, Maja ed. Transnational Spaces: Disciplinary Perspectives. Turkish Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Finland. Publications of Karelian Institute No. Julkaistu Hampurin Bundeswehr -yliopiston sivuilla www. Helsingfors: SSKH. PopLar Newsletter Budapest: Demographic Research Institute,.
Despite of the above-mentioned useful conceptual and empirical insights to the internationalising labour markets, none of the studies focus precisely on the transnational economic space between Finland and Estonia. Many of the respondents from the youngest cohorts have not yet completed their union formation process, and may opt for a native partner in the future. Context also plays an important role in partner choice outcomes. Only in Germany Berlin and Frankfurt did the majority of second-generation Turks opt for a partner from their own second generation.
It is possible that the very large number of Turkish descendants in Germany compared to the other countries may play a role here. A second-generation partner represents the second or even third preferred option in the other countries. While, in general, rather similar partner choice outcomes could be observed in the different countries, multivariate analysis suggests that context factors influenced the choice between the first- and second-generation partners. The findings indicated that part of the preference for first-generation partners was connected to low numbers of Turkish second-generation youths at the city level and access to welfare state provisions and policies that promote multicultural integration, allowing more cultural expression and easier family reunification.
This overall supported hypotheses 4 and 5, although the findings remain tentative and need to be tested further, as we could not test it rigorously. One of the main contributions of our study is the simultaneous focus on multiple partner choice options among the Turkish second generation. Our results support the relevance of doing so, as the choice for a second-generation partner differs significantly from the choice for a first-generation partner. It is important to include the distinction between a first- and a second-generation partner from the sending countries in future studies on partner choice and to examine how the relative popularity of these two options varies in time and space.
In addition, it is important to study the role of choosing a partner from another migrant group. In the current study, too few respondents opted for a partner from another migrant group, and those who did made very heterogeneous choices. Register data could be a useful source to further examine this specific partner choice option.
For the near future, we expect that a first-generation partner from Turkey will remain the most common choice among the Turkish second generation in Europe, as this was observed in 11 out of 13 cities in our study. As we have observed, a shortage of suitable second-generation partners does not increase intermarriage rates, but rather leads to an increased pressure to find a suitable first-generation partner and to a lesser extent a partner of other migrant origin for men.
Choosing a partner from the country of origin could be advantageous with respect to status and quality of the partner, particularly for the majority of young adults with a relatively low level of education. Furthermore, migration pressure, obligations to kin, and continued pressure by parents helps to explain why second-generation exogamous rates currently remain low Bisin and Verdier However, the choice for a first-generation partner from Turkey will become less common in the long run.
Already, the combined percentages of second-generation Turks having a second-generation partner from Turkey, a native partner or a partner of other migrant origin are larger than those choosing a first-generation partner among men in all cities except those in Austria and the Netherlands. This is less the case for women. Moreover, the numbers of first-generation partners are likely to further decrease the larger the size of the Turkish second-generation population and the higher their levels of education become.
Furthermore, as the Turkish community becomes more firmly rooted in their receiving countries, an increasing proportion of families will have relatively little contact with their family of origin. This will most likely reduce the pressure to arrange a marriage with a first-generation partner from Turkey. As a result, romantic matches may become more common, and this requires that the couple meet each other before the marriage.
This is likelier to happen with a local partner pointing to the importance of further studies on the local context and friendship networks for partner choice among the children of immigrants in Europe. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. European Journal of Population. Eur J Popul. Published online Jun Doreen Huschek , 1, 2 Helga A. Liefbroer 2, 4. Helga A. Aart C. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Oct 19; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract We examine the partner choice patterns of second-generation Turks in 13 European cities in seven countries. Introduction The children of former labor migrants from Turkey constitute a growing proportion of the young adult population throughout Europe. Background The Turkish are the largest single-origin group of migrants in Europe, with the largest share defined as being born in Turkey or having at least one Turkish parent living in Germany Statistisches Bundesamt : 2,, , followed by the Netherlands Statistics Netherlands : , , and France INSEE : , Determinants of Partner Choice Partner Choice Among the Second Generation Many studies on intermarriage start from a framework in which three key factors—the role of third parties, personal preferences, and contextual constraints—influence whether people marry a partner from their own ethnic group or from a receiving country Blau ; Kalmijn ; Lieberson and Waters Third Parties Partner choice is hardly ever a completely individual or couple-based process, as individuals look for social approval and are susceptible to group norms.
Parents According to socialization theory, parents transmit values and norms to their children Youniss and Smollar Individual Characteristics The preference for a partner with similar characteristics is widespread. Contextual Factors Contextual factors influence partner choice by defining the opportunities and constraints for meeting potential partners.
Variables Dependent Variable Our dependent variable is a categorical variable indicating the ethnic background of the first partner with whom our second-generation Turkish respondents live d. Open in a separate window. Methods First, we present descriptive results on partner choice by country, also taking into account who took the initiative and whether the partner was a relative or not.
Third Parties: Parents and Peers We find clear effects of third parties parents and peers on the different partner choice outcomes. Individual Characteristics Hypothesis 3 suggests that second-generation young adults with characteristics that predispose them to more modern attitudes are more likely to opt for a second-generation or a native partner.
Control Variables The control variables show that the likelihood of having a second-generation or native partner is lower for women than for men. Discussion and Conclusion The objective of this paper was to amplify research on partner choice among the Turkish second generation by including the choice for a second-generation partner from Turkey as well as a partner of other migrant origin as important alternatives to having either a first-generation partner from the country of origin or a native partner.
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